A newly discovered sophisticated peer-to-peer (P2P) botnet targeting SSH servers is using a proprietary protocol, Guardicore Labs security researchers
A newly discovered sophisticated peer-to-peer (P2P) botnet targeting SSH servers is using a proprietary protocol, Guardicore Labs security researchers explain.
Dubbed FritzFrog, the botnet has been active since January 2020, compromising targets via a worm written in Golang. Modular in nature, the threat uses fileless infection, to avoid leaving traces on disk.
FritzFrog was observed brute-forcing millions of IP addresses, and has infected over 500 servers, including ones of well-known universities in the U.S. and Europe, and a railway company. The threat also targeted government offices, education and finance organizations, medical centers, banks, and telecom companies.
On the infected servers, the malware creates a backdoor in the form of an SSH public key, for ongoing access. Guardicore Labs, which has identified nearly two dozen versions of the malware executable, notes that the bots are constantly communicating over an encrypted channel.
What makes the threat unique compared to other P2P botnets is a fileless infection, constantly updated databases of targets and breached machines, brute-force attacks using an extensive dictionary, even distribution of targets among nodes, and the use of a completely proprietary protocol.
Upon infection, the malware starts running on the new victim system, under the names ifconfig and nginx, and immediately erases itself. It listens for commands on port 1234, with the initial commands ensuring the victim machine is synced with the database of network peers and targets.
To hide traffic, the connection is made over SSH, through a netcat client that receives commands as input. The botnet includes support for more than 30 different commands.
“Nodes in the FritzFrog network keep in close contact with each other. They constantly ping each other to verify connectivity, exchange peers and targets and keep each other synced. The nodes participate in a clever vote-casting process, which appears to affect the distribution of brute-force targets across the network,” Guardicore Labs explains.
Not only is the FritzFrog binary running completely in-memory, but the whole database of targets and peers is also running in the memory of the botnet’s nodes, the researchers say. Multiple threads are used to perform various tasks simultaneously.
The malware attempts to survive reboots and a backdoor is left to ensure future access to the victim machine, and all peers in the network have the login credentials for it. A public SSH-RSA key is added to the authorized_keys file.
Shell commands are executed periodically to monitor system state, including available RAM, uptime, and more, and the information is shared with other nodes, to determine whether specific actions, such as running a crypto-miner, should be performed.
An XMRig-based miner (executed as the libexec process) is used to mine for Monero virtual currency. The miner connects to a public pool over port 5555.
The botnet can share files over the network, and splits them in blobs to avoid detection. These blobs are kept in memory and FritzFrog maps them to keep track of each blob, while also storing their hash values.
“When a node A wishes to receive a file from its peer, node B, it can query node B which blobs it owns using the command getblobstats. Then, node A can get a specific blob by its hash, either by the P2P command getbin or over HTTP, with the URL http://:1234/. When node A has all the needed blobs – it assembles the file using a special module named Assemble and runs it,” Guardicore explains.
Although FritzFrog has been written from scratch and uses its own, previously unseen protocol, the security researchers discovered resemblance with the Rakos P2P botnet that was detailed in 2016. However, the threat hasn’t been attributed to a specific group.
“FritzFrog takes advantage of the fact that many network security solutions enforce traffic only by the port and protocol. To overcome this stealth technique, process-based segmentation rules can easily prevent such threats. Weak passwords are the immediate enabler of FritzFrog’s attacks. We recommend choosing strong passwords and using public key authentication, which is much safer,” Guardicore notes, adding that removing the botnet’s key from the authorized_keys file should remove its access.